String Theory Explained - What is the true nature of our reality?

String Theory Explained


String theory


If we see in the eyes of science then we use two different types of theories to understand the whole universe - the first theory is the General Theory of Relativity and the second is the Quantum Field Theory

If we talk about the bigger objects like stars, planets, etc in this universe then we use the General Theory of Relativity to understand the behavior of this universe. 

Where we use the Quantum Field Theory to understand the structure of matter and interaction of energies in the atomic and subatomic levels. 

Both of these theories work very well within their respective domains. This means that if an object is larger in size, then the General Theory of Relativity will work there. And if an object is smaller in size or very less in mass, then the Quantum Field Theory will work there. 



But why there are two different theories for understanding the behavior of the universe? 

So, can we not formulate a theory that will be able to explain the bigger levels and quantum levels phenomena occurring in the universe? 

This type of thinking of physicists gives rise to a new theory that we know in the name of string theoryThe peculiarity of this theory is that it talks about quantum gravity and multiple dimensions. 

And it also helps to answer some questions that are related to the BigBang's previous universe, which are still mysterious in modern physics. 

In this article, we are going to learn about this string theory. To understand the string theory, we need to have an idea about Fundamental Forces and Standard Model of Elementary Particles. So before starting let us know first about fundamental forces and the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. 

Fundamental Forces

In this universe, there are various types of interactions are occurring between the particles. When we studied very closely the mechanism of the interactions between these particles, we find that these interactions can be divided into four fundamental forces.

These four fundamental forces are like this - 

1. Gravitational force
2. Electromagnetic force
3. Strong nuclear force
4. Weak nuclear force 



Four fundamental forces


Gravitational force :

If gravitational force is to be talked about, then it is the weakest force of the four fundamental forces, but its region is the most. For this gravitational force, the planets rotate around the sun and the satellites orbit the planets.

Electromagnetic force :

Now if we talk about Electromagnetic force, it would not be too difficult for us to understand because now we are experiencing it in our daily life. Yes, I'm talking about electric and magnetic force.



For a long time, electric and magnetic forces were considered as two separate forces. But in 1864, James Clerk Maxwell has unified these two forces through his Maxwell equations. Then in 1940, it becomes part of quantum mechanics due to quantum electrodynamics.

Strong nuclear force :

If we talk about the Strong nuclear force, then it is the strongest force among the four fundamental forces. This is because it holds the neutrons and protons in the nucleus of the atoms.

You can estimate its strength by helium (He) atom, which has two positively charged protons in the nucleus. positively charged particles naturally repel each other, so it takes an extreme amount of force to hold protons together.

The strong nuclear force overcomes the repulsion between protons to hold together atomic nuclei. Without the strong nuclear force, complex nuclear cannot form.

Weak nuclear force :

The Weak nuclear force is also strong enough but its region is very small. Its mechanism of interaction occurs between subatomic particles that are responsible for the radioactive decay of atoms. For example, a phenomenon like beta decay is caused by this type of nuclear force. 

Standard Model of Elementary Particle

The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics tells us a lot of things about how the composition of the universe or different types of forces work in the sub-atomic levels. 



According to this theory, everything in this universe is made up of twelve basic building blocks. Of these twelve building blocks, six are Quark, to whom interesting names have been given, like - Up, Down, Charm, Strange, Top and Bottom. For example, the proton is made up of two up quark and one down quark. 

The remaining six building blocks are called leptons, where there are three neutrinos with Electrons, Muon, and Tau.


Standard Model of Elementary Particle

Of the four fundamental forces we learned about, three forces (Electromagnetic force, Strong nuclear force, and Weak nuclear force) can be easily explained by the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. Because the fundamental particles here are work as the carriers of these forces.

For example, if we try to understand the magnetic force, then the magnet attracts iron only because of the exchange of photons occurring between iron and magnet.

But the gravitational force is the only force that has not yet been explained at the microscopic level. In fact, no concept of gravity has been found at the microscopic level yet.

Now if we find a theory that proves quantum gravity then we will get a unified theory, through which we can easily explain all the forces.

Theories that have been given for decades, string theory is the only theory among them that claims to explain quantum gravity.


What does string theory say?


Suppose we have an object such as a candle. Now if we try to know what it is made of, then we will get atoms. Now if we go inside the atom we see that there are electrons and they are rotating around the nucleus. Inside this nucleus, there are neutrons and protons.



Now if we go inside the proton we get quarks through which proton is formed. Here the thought of Modern Physics ends. That is why we accept that quark is the smallest part of the matter and we can't break it anymore.

But the string theory says that inside the quark there is a kind of energy that always vibrates which makes it look like a string or a membrane.


String pattern

It is not necessary that the strings are always in the closed state. In fact, they may be in the open state in both directions and also in the straight. 

You may have noticed that when strings are vibrated in different patterns in a cello, different types of sounds are produced. Similarly, when strings are vibrated in different patterns, different types of particles have been formed.

That means the only difference between a stone and a human body is that the strings are vibrating in one way in the human body and another way in the stone.

Now if we had a microscope with which we could see the smallest objects in the universe, then our universe would look like this.


String-theory-universe

We will see that the energies are present around us are just look like the strings, that are always in vibrating at different frequencies. Due to the vibration of these strings at different frequencies, different types of particles are created in this universe, which is why it is so strange to see this universe.

Since everything in this universe and all the objects in this universe, as well as all the forces, are makes by these strings, so we can easily explain everything with it. That means we got a unified theory. But it is not as easy as it seems.

Multiple dimensions

Actually, when we look at the mathematical equations of string theory, we find that this theory does not work in a universe that has only 3 special dimensions. In order to work it needs a universe that has not five or six but has 10 space dimensions and also has a dimension of time.

Because till now we only know that our universe has 3 special dimensions and has one dimension of time so this theory should not work in this universe. But by the concept of string theory, we can derive mathematically the standard model of matter. This means that this theory can also be true.



Now the question arises that if this theory is correct, then where are the remaining seven dimensions. If it is present in this universe then why do we not see it?

String theory believers say that there are two types of dimensions, one is so large in size that we can easily see them while the other is so small that we can not see them.

For example, if we look at a single wire from a distance, we will find it look like one dimensional, but for ants, it will not look one dimensional because it can move around it. This means it is absolutely possible that many dimensions are in front of us but we are not able to see them.

Quantum gravity

Now let's talk about quantum gravity and know what it has to do with string theory. Actually, when string theory was in its early days, based on its mathematical equations it was predicted that there should be a massless particle inside the atom. 

But even after many experiments, when scientists did not find any such particle in nature, then they stop taking the string theory seriously. 

However, 4 years later, while Schwarz was trying to eliminate the complexities in the string theory, he found that this massless particle was actually describing to the gravity. 

After that, the particle was named as graviton and it is believed that this graviton carries gravity at the quantum level. That is, if the string theory is correct, then by the quantum field theory, we will be able to understand all the fundamental forces. This means that we will get a unified theory. 

However, it is still only a hypothetical particle i.e we have not yet found any such particle physically. String theory really makes interesting. But there are many forms of this theory. 



Different people have created six different theories based on their understanding, the basic idea in this theory for everyone is the same but it is slightly different in terms of the behavior of strings. Five of them speak of ten space dimensions, whereas the sixth i.e the bosonic string theory talks about twenty-six space dimensions.

Since all these theories are derived from a single theory, the combination of these theories is also called M-theory.


What is the conclusion for string theory?


Now the next question arises whether the string theory is correct or not. Because string theory talks about such strings that we cannot prove experimentally so we do not consider this correct.

But it is not that scientists consider it completely wrong. In fact, most of the physicists consider it a philosophical theory more than physics.

String theory also predicts for another particle called Tachyon, whose speed is greater than the speed of light. Because physicists believe that no object in this universe can move faster than the speed of light, they refuse to believe this theory.

If we get graviton in some way, then this theory will be stamped, but even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have not found any such particle yet, due to which there is still a big question mark on this theory.

Those who believe in string theory say that this is absolutely true. But it's so complicated that we probably didn't fully understand it. Perhaps we will understand it better in the future. If this were to happen then our entire understanding of this universe would change.



All the theories of conventional physics fail in a black hole, in the same way, it is not even able to tell what was there before the Big Bang or why Big Bang happened. We get all the answers to these questions from the string theory.

If we talk about the Big Bang, so those who believe in string theory also believe that two huge size membranes existed before the Big Bang in which there were two different parallel universes which both were vibrating.  Some parts of them collide with each other and our universe begins to form. This is what we call the Big Bang.

Those who believe in string theory also believe that the process of colliding with these membranes is always going on. That means in the future, it is certain that events like Big Bang can happen.

Maybe, the explanation that comes from Big Bang theory may not have satisfied you that much. Because many people do not agree with it but they believe that with the help of string theory we will get a satisfying answer.




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Types of Artificial intelligence - What are the 7 types of AI?

Types of Artificial intelligence


Types of Artificial intelligence


Artificial Intelligence (AI) is mainly classified based on two things: One is their capabilities and the other is their functionality.

Types of AI based on capabilities -

According to capabilities, Artificial Intelligence is mainly divided into three stages: Weak Artificial Intelligence, General Artificial Intelligence,  and Super Artificial Intelligence.

These are the three types of artificial intelligence through which they can evolve. Let's understand each stage in depth.

1. Weak Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence is also known as Narrow Artificial IntelligenceThis artificial intelligence lacks the ability to think and make decisions like humans.



If we talk about their capabilities then they can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific tasks with intelligence.

Since they are only trained for one specific task so they are called Weak Artificial Intelligence.

For example - Apple Siri and IBM's Watson supercomputer are good examples of Weak Artificial Intelligence and also some other examples of Weak Artificial Intelligence are playing chess, self-driving cars,  purchasing suggestions on e-commerce sites, speech recognition, and image recognition.

2. General Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence is also known as Strong Artificial Intelligence. This artificial intelligence has the ability to think and make decisions, just like humans.

There is no existing example of Strong Artificial Intelligence, but it is believed that we will soon be able to build a machine that will be as smart as humans.

3. Super Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence system is amazing where machines can surpass human intelligence and perform any task better than cognitively-featured humans.

They will be able to think, reason, solve the puzzle, make judgments, plan, learn, and communicate on their own.



Super Artificial Intelligence is still a hypothetical concept of artificial intelligence, in fact, the development of such a system is still a world-changing task.

Types of AI based on functionality -

According to functionality, Artificial Intelligence is mainly divided into four stages: Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence, Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence, Theory Of Mind Artificial Intelligence, and Self-aware Artificial Intelligence. Let's understand each stage in depth.

1. Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence system does not store memories or past experiences for future operations.


They are only focused on the current situation and respond to it as the best action possible.

Examples - Google's AlphaGo and IBM's Deep Blue system are good examples of Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence.

2. Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence:


This type of Artificial Intelligence can store past experiences or some data for a short period of time and then can inform future decisions by using this past experience.


Self-driving cars are one of the best examples of Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence.

These cars can store the recent speed of nearby cars, distance to other cars, speed limits and other information to navigate the roads.

3. Theory Of Mind Artificial Intelligence:


This type of Artificial Intelligence will understand human emotions, beliefs and be able to interact socially like humans.




This type of Artificial Intelligence has not yet been developed, but researchers are making great efforts and improvements to develop such Artificial Intelligence.

4. Self-aware Artificial Intelligence:


This type of Artificial Intelligence will be extremely intelligent and have their own consciousness, feelings, and self-awareness.


This type of Artificial Intelligence does not exist in reality and it is just a hypothetical idea.




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History of Artificial Intelligence - How AI evolved?

Artificial-intelligence-history


History of Artificial Intelligence


Artificial Intelligence is not a new word and not a new technology for researchers. This technology is much older than you would imagine. The History of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in ancient times, which was started with the myths of artificial creatures.

The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who tried to describe the human thought process as a mechanical manipulation of symbols. 
This article looks at how Artificial Intelligence has evolved over time.

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Chandrayaan-2 Everything You Need to Know

Chandrayaan-2


September 7, 2019, was a very important day for all science explorers. Because on this day Chandrayaan-2's Vikram lander was going to land on the moon. If it would have successfully landed on the surface of the moon, then India could have been the fourth national country after the United States, China, and Russia to successfully land the lander by soft landing on the surface of the moon. And at the same time, India could have been the first country to drop an instrument in the South Pole of the Moon. Because no country has done it before.


Chandrayaan-2 Everything You Need to Know

Everything was going well and Vikram Lander was getting closer to the moon. But when it was only 2.1 km away from the surface of the moon, then for some reason it lost the communication with our scientists.

Then after a few hours, the scientists didn't know what actually happened with the lander and where it was. But after that, the orbiter of this mission finds its current location through thermal imaging.

But so far it is not clear that is it okay or is there some damage to it. ISRO's scientists thinking that it has been a hard landing rather than a soft landing.

If technically seen it then it is very difficult to communicate with this lander. But scientists are doing every effort to communicate with it.




They will continue to communicate for up to 14 days. Because the rover Pragyan inside the lander was configured to work for 1 day on the moon surface, where this 1 day on moon equals to the 14 days on earth.

It is important to say here that if the scientists of ISRO are can't communicate with the lander then this does not mean that the Chandrayaan-2 mission has been unsuccessful.

Because the Vikram Lander and the Pragyan Rover were only 5 percent of this mission. The remaining 95 percent is the job of the orbiter that is still working well in a very expecting way.


The cameras in this orbiter are far more superior to any spacecraft that ever until now sent to space. And it will continue to provide us important information about the moon for the first seven years.


In this article, we will learn what the Chandrayaan-2 mission is, why it is so important to us, What we have learned from this, how it was sent.


And finally, by analyzing technical data from ISRO, we will know what really happened to Vikram Lander when it was landing on the Moon.



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Quantum entanglement - explain in details

Today, our entire scientific society fully agrees that the quantum world is a mystery because nothing happens here based on our thinking. But when quantum theory was new, it disturbed many scientists of the time, where one of them is Albert EinsteinIn fact, Albert Einstein's quantum theory did not digest, because its prediction was so unacceptable. Even, to prove it wrong, he along with his two companions took the help of a thought experiment called the EPR Paradox.


This thought experiment gave birth to a unique Phenomenon that has been the cause of our research today for its strange behavior. This phenomenon is named Quantum entanglement.

Usually, Einstein and his friends did the EPR Paradox Experiment to prove the quantum theory is wrong. But it was happened completely opposite to it.

In reality, when Einstein and his friends talked about the EPR Paradox, they didn't have the proper equipment to test it. So it was only tested as a thought experiment. For which scientists could not reach any conclusion.



But after some years later, when the appropriate equipment came to us and scientists tested this experiment again, then they found that Einstein and his friends were actually wrong.

Because the result of the experiment came just as the quantum theory was predicted. Since it has been found that quantum theory is correct, it has changed our view of Whole Reality.


Now scientists have been realized that if we want to know the exact nature of the world around us, it would be known through our quantum theory. In this article, we will learn about EPR Paradox and quantum entanglement.

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How to use a breadboard full tutorial for beginners

How to use a breadboard full tutorial for beginners

Breadboards are one of the most electronic devices that gives you the privilege to create a circuit on it without soldering. When you are learning how to build circuits on a breadboard then it is important that you must know about this board.


In this tutorial, you will learn what is breadboard, breadboard connection, how breadboards work, breadboard types and then how to use one. Once you understand these things then you will able to build basic circuits on breadboards.



What is a breadboard?

A breadboard is a simple device in which you can create electronic circuits without soldering. It is a rectangular shape plastic board with a bunch of tiny holes in it.

In these holes, you can easily insert electronic components (like LED, Capacitor, Resistor, Diode, different IC, etc) and test the circuit which you have made.


In this board, there is no permanent connection so there is an advantage to remove components if you make a mistake. So it is very useful for beginners who are new in electronics.



How to use a breadboard full tutorial for beginners
Breadboard

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Quantum computer - How does it work?

Quantum computer


Computers have become a very important part of our lives. Whatever the point of research, space exploration, and technological advancement, nothing is possible without a computer. In the past few centuries, we have reduced the size of the computer or even the power of computing has been greatly enhanced. If we use the example of today's smart phone's computing power, then it is much better than the military computer which was the equivalent of a room.

Despite all those things, our classical computer today is not perfect in many ways. If you talk about their general limitations, then it is their speeds. Because it takes a lot of time to solve complex mathematical equations. Among other problems, storage space issues and energy consumption plays a very important role. For this, we need a computer that is many times better than today's computer.


Companies like Google, IBM (International Business Machines Corporation), and Intel are using the rules of quantum physics to create computers that we can be called futures computers. These computers are named Quantum Computers.

This kind of computer has been built or even used in small calculations. Now, these companies are trying to make this computer at a bigger level. If these computers start to be built at a larger level,  then they will replace the computers used today. In this article, we will learn about Quantum Computer's work and why we need it.


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Circuit breaker - What it is and how it works

Circuit breaker - What it is and how it works


Circuit breaker


Circuit breaker is an automatic switching device used to protect electrical power systems from the excessive flow of electric current. 

When an overload or short circuit occurs in an electrical circuit, it automatically disconnects the entire power system and saved the system. 

The circuit breaker is like the Fuse but it is a little advanced level device compared to the Fuse. 

Fuses and circuit breakers do the same work when overloads occur in the circuit, which means they break the power system. 

But the fuse needs to be replaced repeatedly from the circuit where the circuit breaker can automatically do this task.

Circuit breaker - What it is and how it works

There are three types of circuit breakers for protective household electrical connections. 

For example - Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB), Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB), and Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB)

According to the construction of Circuit breaker, there are different types of Circuit breakers. like - Air Circuit Breaker, SF6 Circuit Breaker, Vacuum Circuit Breaker, Oil Circuit Breaker.

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How transistor work? - Explain in details

How transistor work? - Explain in details

Transistor is one of the most popular electronic components that can do two different works. It can function as an amplifier or a switch. There are so many types of transistors used in electronics according to their characteristics and applications.

Transistors like BJT(Bipolar Junction Transistor), FET(Field Effect Transistor) are used in electronics. Junction Transistor can be of two types PNP transistor and NPN transistor and there are two types of Field Effect Transistor - Junction Field Effect Transistor(JFET) and Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistor(MOSFET). In this tutorial, we are going to learn about how Bipolar Junction Transistor(BJT) work.


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What is Raspberry Pi? - Basics you need to know

What is Raspberry Pi? - Basics you need to know

What is Raspberry Pi?


Raspberry Pi is a small, cheap computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a keyboard and mouse. It is a device that enables people of all ages to explore computing and help them to learn how to program in different languages like Scratch and Python.

It is able of doing everything that you expect a desktop computer can to do, from internet browsing and playing high-definition videos, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games. And also it has the ability to interact with the outside world and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects.

The latest model of Raspberry Pi comes with 1 GB of RAM (Random Access Memory), 1.2 GHz quad-core ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) Cortex-A53 processor, and basic levels of functionality that enables hobbyists, computer enthusiasts, and students to use this device for DIY projects.

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