Chandrayaan-2 Everything You Need to Know

Chandrayaan-2


September 7, 2019, was a very important day for all science explorers. Because on this day Chandrayaan-2's Vikram lander was going to land on the moon. If it would have successfully landed on the surface of the moon, then India could have been the fourth national country after the United States, China, and Russia to successfully land the lander by soft landing on the surface of the moon. And at the same time, India could have been the first country to drop an instrument in the South Pole of the Moon. Because no country has done it before.


Chandrayaan-2 Everything You Need to Know

Everything was going well and Vikram Lander was getting closer to the moon. But when it was only 2.1 km away from the surface of the moon, then for some reason it lost the communication with our scientists.

Then after a few hours, the scientists didn't know what actually happened with the lander and where it was. But after that, the orbiter of this mission finds its current location through thermal imaging.

But so far it is not clear that is it okay or is there some damage to it. ISRO's scientists thinking that it has been a hard landing rather than a soft landing.

If technically seen it then it is very difficult to communicate with this lander. But scientists are doing every effort to communicate with it.




They will continue to communicate for up to 14 days. Because the rover Pragyan inside the lander was configured to work for 1 day on the moon surface, where this 1 day on moon equals to the 14 days on earth.

It is important to say here that if the scientists of ISRO are can't communicate with the lander then this does not mean that the Chandrayaan-2 mission has been unsuccessful.

Because the Vikram Lander and the Pragyan Rover were only 5 percent of this mission. The remaining 95 percent is the job of the orbiter that is still working well in a very expecting way.


The cameras in this orbiter are far more superior to any spacecraft that ever until now sent to space. And it will continue to provide us important information about the moon for the first seven years.


In this article, we will learn what the Chandrayaan-2 mission is, why it is so important to us, What we have learned from this, how it was sent.


And finally, by analyzing technical data from ISRO, we will know what really happened to Vikram Lander when it was landing on the Moon.



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Quantum entanglement - explain in details

Today, our entire scientific society fully agrees that the quantum world is a mystery because nothing happens here based on our thinking. But when quantum theory was new, it disturbed many scientists of the time, where one of them is Albert EinsteinIn fact, Albert Einstein's quantum theory did not digest, because its prediction was so unacceptable. Even, to prove it wrong, he along with his two companions took the help of a thought experiment called the EPR Paradox.


This thought experiment gave birth to a unique Phenomenon that has been the cause of our research today for its strange behavior. This phenomenon is named Quantum entanglement.

Usually, Einstein and his friends did the EPR Paradox Experiment to prove the quantum theory is wrong. But it was happened completely opposite to it.

In reality, when Einstein and his friends talked about the EPR Paradox, they didn't have the proper equipment to test it. So it was only tested as a thought experiment. For which scientists could not reach any conclusion.



But after some years later, when the appropriate equipment came to us and scientists tested this experiment again, then they found that Einstein and his friends were actually wrong.

Because the result of the experiment came just as the quantum theory was predicted. Since it has been found that quantum theory is correct, it has changed our view of Whole Reality.


Now scientists have been realized that if we want to know the exact nature of the world around us, it would be known through our quantum theory. In this article, we will learn about EPR Paradox and quantum entanglement.

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How to use a breadboard full tutorial for beginners

How to use a breadboard full tutorial for beginners

Breadboards are one of the most electronic devices that gives you the privilege to create a circuit on it without soldering. When you are learning how to build circuits on a breadboard then it is important that you must know about this board.


In this tutorial, you will learn what is breadboard, breadboard connection, how breadboards work, breadboard types and then how to use one. Once you understand these things then you will able to build basic circuits on breadboards.



What is a breadboard?

A breadboard is a simple device in which you can create electronic circuits without soldering. It is a rectangular shape plastic board with a bunch of tiny holes in it.

In these holes, you can easily insert electronic components (like LED, Capacitor, Resistor, Diode, different IC, etc) and test the circuit which you have made.


In this board, there is no permanent connection so there is an advantage to remove components if you make a mistake. So it is very useful for beginners who are new in electronics.



How to use a breadboard full tutorial for beginners
Breadboard

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Quantum computer - How does it work?

Quantum computer


Computers have become a very important part of our lives. Whatever the point of research, space exploration, and technological advancement, nothing is possible without a computer. In the past few centuries, we have reduced the size of the computer or even the power of computing has been greatly enhanced. If we use the example of today's smart phone's computing power, then it is much better than the military computer which was the equivalent of a room.

Despite all those things, our classical computer today is not perfect in many ways. If you talk about their general limitations, then it is their speeds. Because it takes a lot of time to solve complex mathematical equations. Among other problems, storage space issues and energy consumption plays a very important role. For this, we need a computer that is many times better than today's computer.


Companies like Google, IBM (International Business Machines Corporation), and Intel are using the rules of quantum physics to create computers that we can be called futures computers. These computers are named Quantum Computers.

This kind of computer has been built or even used in small calculations. Now, these companies are trying to make this computer at a bigger level. If these computers start to be built at a larger level,  then they will replace the computers used today. In this article, we will learn about Quantum Computer's work and why we need it.


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Circuit breaker - What it is and how it works

Circuit breaker - What it is and how it works


Circuit breaker


Circuit breaker is an automatic switching device used to protect electrical power systems from the excessive flow of electric current. 

When an overload or short circuit occurs in an electrical circuit, it automatically disconnects the entire power system and saved the system. 

The circuit breaker is like the Fuse but it is a little advanced level device compared to the Fuse. 

Fuses and circuit breakers do the same work when overloads occur in the circuit, which means they break the power system. 

But the fuse needs to be replaced repeatedly from the circuit where the circuit breaker can automatically do this task.

Circuit breaker - What it is and how it works

There are three types of circuit breakers for protective household electrical connections. 

For example - Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB), Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB), and Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB)

According to the construction of Circuit breaker, there are different types of Circuit breakers. like - Air Circuit Breaker, SF6 Circuit Breaker, Vacuum Circuit Breaker, Oil Circuit Breaker.

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How transistor work? - Explain in details

How transistor work? - Explain in details

Transistor is one of the most popular electronic components that can do two different works. It can function as an amplifier or a switch. There are so many types of transistors used in electronics according to their characteristics and applications.

Transistors like BJT(Bipolar Junction Transistor), FET(Field Effect Transistor) are used in electronics. Junction Transistor can be of two types PNP transistor and NPN transistor and there are two types of Field Effect Transistor - Junction Field Effect Transistor(JFET) and Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistor(MOSFET). In this tutorial, we are going to learn about how Bipolar Junction Transistor(BJT) work.


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What is Raspberry Pi? - Basics you need to know

What is Raspberry Pi? - Basics you need to know

What is Raspberry Pi?


Raspberry Pi is a small, cheap computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a keyboard and mouse. It is a device that enables people of all ages to explore computing and help them to learn how to program in different languages like Scratch and Python.

It is able of doing everything that you expect a desktop computer can to do, from internet browsing and playing high-definition videos, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games. And also it has the ability to interact with the outside world and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects.

The latest model of Raspberry Pi comes with 1 GB of RAM (Random Access Memory), 1.2 GHz quad-core ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) Cortex-A53 processor, and basic levels of functionality that enables hobbyists, computer enthusiasts, and students to use this device for DIY projects.

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5G Network - Everything you need to know

5G Network - Everything you need to know


5G Network


5G Network is the fifth-generation mobile network technology. It is the latest repetitive cellular technology to increase the speed and responsiveness of the wireless network. It will deliver new levels of performance in speed, capacity, and latency and will work in high efficiency that will empower new user experiences and connect new industries.


5G NR speed can be slightly higher than the 4G NR speed. With 5G, data will be delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-seconds peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second average data rates.


How does 5G Network work?


5G technology will acquire its expected high efficiency using most modern modulation techniques and network terminologies.

1. Carrier aggregation


This is the technique used in LTE to improve system efficiency. In this process carrier signals can be two or more and they are aggregated to support wider bandwidth that allows even up to 100MHz.




Carrier aggregation uses three-techniques to aggregate signals and they are -


a) Intra-band contiguous - In this technique, two carriers are transmitted at neighboring channels.


b) Intra-band non-contiguous - In this technique, two carriers are transmitted with channel spacing.

c) Inter-band - In this technique, different LTE bands are used for transmission simultaneously.

2. Small cell concept


In this process to increase network efficiency, many cells are subdivided into micro and Pico cells.



Spectrum reusability allows adding more users in a small geographical area and handles network more efficiently.


3. MIMO concept


It is the technology where multiple antennas are used for transmission and reception. If the number of antennas increases then the transmission and reception are also increases.


4. Wi-Fi off-loading


Wi-fi off-loading is one of the main features of future networks. It allows the user to connect using the wi-fi network and the cellular network can be allocated to other users.



It would be suitable for some places where the cellular network is very poor.


5. Device to device communication


Device to device communication is a technique where a network authorizes two adjacent devices to communicate with each other directly.


6. Cloud – Radio Network Access


This technology is used for effective communication with centralized information processing carried out remotely within the cloud system.



The signal is processed at a remote location and the base stations are connected with most efficient fiber-optic connections. It gives a lot of advantages in system performance, maintenance and highly efficient.

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Resistor color code with proper guide

Resistor color code with proper guide

Resistor color code


Resistor color code is used to easily identify a resistor's resistive value and its percentage tolerance. Another way, the resistor uses the color painted bands to indicate both their resistive value and their tolerance with the physical size of the resistor indicating its wattage rating.

These colored painted bands produce a system of indication generally it is known as resistor color code.


Resistor color code table


The table is given below shows how to determine the resistance and tolerance for a resistor. This table is used to specify the color of the bands when the values are known.

Resistor color code with proper guide
Resistor color code table

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Diode types full guide for beginners

Diode types full guide for beginners


diode is an electronic component that allows the flow of electric current only in one direction. For allowing current only in one direction it is used in the rectification process where the AC signals converted into DC signals. And also, in electronics, there are different types of diodes used for various applications.


They are used as a voltage regulator, oscillators, switches, signal mixture, signal limiters, signal modulator, and demodulators, etc. In this tutorial, I am going to unlock the details of different types of diodes.



Diode symbols


Diode schematic symbols to design electronic circuits



Diode types full guide for beginners

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