What is multimeter? Beginner's Guide

What is multimeter? Beginner's Guide

Any kind of electrical work no matter what the application is - one of the best measuring tools is a multimeter. It is an electronic tool, which is used to measure voltage, current, resistance, and other values of electronic components. It is also known as a volt-ohm meter (VOM)

The multimeter has two probes (red and black/positive and negative). They are used to connect with the circuit. And a display shows it's measuring values.

Basically, two types of multimeter have come - analog multimeter and digital multimeter. In these two types of multimeter, the most widely used multimeter is a digital multimeter. 

If you are a beginner and just starting how to use a digital multimeter then this article will helpful for you.  In this tutorial, you will learn - 

1. What is a multimeter?
2. What are the types of multimeters?
3. What are the parts of a digital multimeter? 

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4 Basic Questions Answers Related to Gravitational Waves

4 Basic Questions Answers Related to Gravitational Waves

There are many things in this universe that we can easily see or observe, such as planets, stars, galaxies, etc. On the other hand, there are some things that we have neither seen nor directly observed. But still, we believe that they definitely exist. We only know about them because our mathematical equations predict them. One such mystery was the Gravitational Waves

Albert Einstein predicted the existence of Gravitational Waves in 1916, based on the equation of his General Theory of Relativity. But prior to 2015, Gravitational Waves used to exist only in theory and equations. On 14 September 2015, LIGO first detected gravitational waves, which was created due to the merging of two black holes that existed billions of light-years away from the earth. 

This discovery not only proved Albert Einstein's theory that is more than 100 years old but also gave us a new tool to understand this universe better. You can guess how important it was to detect Gravitational Waves that the three physicists ( Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish ) involved in this discovery were awarded by Nobel PrizeIn this article, we will know - 

1. What are Gravitational Waves? 
2. How Gravitational Waves are produced? 
3. How do scientists detect Gravitational Waves? 
4. How does LIGO Observatory work? 

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What are Black Holes and How do they form?

What are Black Holes - How do they form?

There are many things in the universe that we have not yet known much about. Black Hole is also one of them. If you do not know about the black hole, then let me tell you that there are some places in space where the attraction of gravity is so much that they consume every object that comes close to them, even the light is also not able to return from there, for which it is not visible to us. Such places we call Black Holes

Although we know how black holes are formed, what happens outside them and how to detect them but even today, we have not been able to know what happens inside the black hole.

Practically it is impossible to know that what happens inside the black hole because if we send any probe inside the black hole, then it will never be able to get out of the effect of the gravity of the black hole nor will it be able to send any signal to us.

So for now, it would be good for us to understand the theoretical concept of black holes. In this article, we will know -

1. What are black holes?
2. How many types are black holes?
3. What are the parts of a black hole?
4. How do black holes form?
5. What is the reason for the light shining near black holes? 

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String Theory Explained - What is the true nature of our reality?

String Theory Explained

String theory 

If we see in the eyes of science then we use two different types of theories to understand the whole universe - the first theory is the General Theory of Relativity and the second is the Quantum Field Theory

If we talk about the bigger objects like stars, planets, etc in this universe then we use the General Theory of Relativity to understand the behavior of this universe. 

Where we use the Quantum Field Theory to understand the structure of matter and interaction of energies in the atomic and subatomic levels. 

Both of these theories work very well within their respective domains. This means that if an object is larger in size, then the General Theory of Relativity will work there. And if an object is smaller in size or very less in mass, then the Quantum Field Theory will work there. 

But why there are two different theories for understanding the behavior of the universe? 

So, can we not formulate a theory that will be able to explain the bigger levels and quantum levels phenomena occurring in the universe? 

This type of thinking of physicists gives rise to a new theory that we know in the name of string theoryThe peculiarity of this theory is that it talks about quantum gravity and multiple dimensions. 

And it also helps to answer some questions that are related to the BigBang's previous universe, which are still mysterious in modern physics. In this article, we will know - 

1. What are the fundamental forces? 
2. What is the Standard Model of Elementary Particles? 
3. What does string theory say? 

To understand the string theory, we need to have an idea about Fundamental Forces and Standard Model of Elementary Particles. So before starting let us know first about fundamental forces and the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. 

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Types of Artificial intelligence - What are the 7 types of AI?

Types of Artificial intelligence

Types of Artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is mainly classified based on two things: One is their capabilities and the other is their functionality.

Types of AI based on capabilities -

According to capabilities, Artificial Intelligence is mainly divided into three stages: Weak Artificial Intelligence, General Artificial Intelligence,  and Super Artificial Intelligence.

These are the three types of artificial intelligence through which they can evolve. Let's understand each stage in depth.

1. Weak Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence is also known as Narrow Artificial IntelligenceThis artificial intelligence lacks the ability to think and make decisions like humans.

If we talk about their capabilities then they can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific tasks with intelligence.

Since they are only trained for one specific task so they are called Weak Artificial Intelligence.

For example - Apple Siri and IBM's Watson supercomputer are good examples of Weak Artificial Intelligence and also some other examples of Weak Artificial Intelligence are playing chess, self-driving cars,  purchasing suggestions on e-commerce sites, speech recognition, and image recognition.

2. General Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence is also known as Strong Artificial Intelligence. This artificial intelligence has the ability to think and make decisions, just like humans.

There is no existing example of Strong Artificial Intelligence, but it is believed that we will soon be able to build a machine that will be as smart as humans.

3. Super Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence system is amazing where machines can surpass human intelligence and perform any task better than cognitively-featured humans.

They will be able to think, reason, solve the puzzle, make judgments, plan, learn, and communicate on their own.

Super Artificial Intelligence is still a hypothetical concept of artificial intelligence, in fact, the development of such a system is still a world-changing task.

Types of AI based on functionality -

According to functionality, Artificial Intelligence is mainly divided into four stages: Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence, Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence, Theory Of Mind Artificial Intelligence, and Self-aware Artificial Intelligence. Let's understand each stage in depth.

1. Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence system does not store memories or past experiences for future operations.

They are only focused on the current situation and respond to it as the best action possible.

Examples - Google's AlphaGo and IBM's Deep Blue system are good examples of Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence.

2. Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence can store past experiences or some data for a short period of time and then can inform future decisions by using this past experience.

Self-driving cars are one of the best examples of Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence.

These cars can store the recent speed of nearby cars, distance to other cars, speed limits and other information to navigate the roads.

3. Theory Of Mind Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence will understand human emotions, beliefs and be able to interact socially like humans.

This type of Artificial Intelligence has not yet been developed, but researchers are making great efforts and improvements to develop such Artificial Intelligence.

4. Self-aware Artificial Intelligence:

This type of Artificial Intelligence will be extremely intelligent and have their own consciousness, feelings, and self-awareness.

This type of Artificial Intelligence does not exist in reality and it is just a hypothetical idea.

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History of Artificial Intelligence - How AI evolved?


History of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is not a new word and not a new technology for researchers. This technology is much older than you would imagine. The History of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in ancient times, which was started with the myths of artificial creatures.

The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who tried to describe the human thought process as a mechanical manipulation of symbols. 
This article looks at how Artificial Intelligence has evolved over time.

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Chandrayaan-2 Everything You Need to Know


September 7, 2019, was a very important day for all science explorers. Because on this day Chandrayaan-2's Vikram lander was going to land on the moon. If it would have successfully landed on the surface of the moon, then India could have been the fourth national country after the United States, China, and Russia to successfully land the lander by soft landing on the surface of the moon. And at the same time, India could have been the first country to drop an instrument in the South Pole of the Moon. Because no country has done it before.

Chandrayaan-2 Everything You Need to Know

Everything was going well and Vikram Lander was getting closer to the moon. But when it was only 2.1 km away from the surface of the moon, then for some reason it lost the communication with our scientists.

Then after a few hours, the scientists didn't know what actually happened with the lander and where it was. But after that, the orbiter of this mission finds its current location through thermal imaging.

But so far it is not clear that is it okay or is there some damage to it. ISRO's scientists thinking that it has been a hard landing rather than a soft landing.

If technically seen it then it is very difficult to communicate with this lander. But scientists are doing every effort to communicate with it.

They will continue to communicate for up to 14 days. Because the rover Pragyan inside the lander was configured to work for 1 day on the moon surface, where this 1 day on moon equals to the 14 days on earth.

It is important to say here that if the scientists of ISRO are can't communicate with the lander then this does not mean that the Chandrayaan-2 mission has been unsuccessful.

Because the Vikram Lander and the Pragyan Rover were only 5 percent of this mission. The remaining 95 percent is the job of the orbiter that is still working well in a very expecting way.

The cameras in this orbiter are far more superior to any spacecraft that ever until now sent to space. And it will continue to provide us important information about the moon for the first seven years.

In this article, we will learn what the Chandrayaan-2 mission is, why it is so important to us, What we have learned from this, how it was sent.

And finally, by analyzing technical data from ISRO, we will know what really happened to Vikram Lander when it was landing on the Moon.

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What is Quantum entanglement?

What is Quantum entanglement?

Quantum entanglement 

Today, our entire scientific society fully agrees that the quantum world is a mystery because nothing happens here based on our thinking. But when quantum theory was new, it disturbed many scientists of the time, where one of them is Albert EinsteinIn fact, Albert Einstein's quantum theory did not digest, because its prediction was so unacceptable. Even, to prove it wrong, he along with his two companions took the help of a thought experiment called the EPR Paradox.

This thought experiment gave birth to a unique Phenomenon that has been the cause of our research today for its strange behavior. This phenomenon is named Quantum entanglement.

Usually, Einstein and his friends did the EPR Paradox Experiment to prove the quantum theory is wrong. But it was happened completely opposite to it.

In reality, when Einstein and his friends talked about the EPR Paradox, they didn't have the proper equipment to test it. So it was only tested as a thought experiment. For which scientists could not reach any conclusion.

But after some years later, when the appropriate equipment came to us and scientists tested this experiment again, then they found that Einstein and his friends were actually wrong.

Because the result of the experiment came just as the quantum theory was predicted. Since it has been found that quantum theory is correct, it has changed our view of Whole Reality.

Now scientists have been realized that if we want to know the exact nature of the world around us, it would be known through our quantum theory. In this article, we will know -

1. History of Quantum entanglement 
2. EPR Paradox in quantum entanglement 
3. What are entangled particles? 
4. What is Quantum entanglement? 

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How to use a breadboard? Beginner's Guide

How to use a breadboard? Beginner's Guide

Breadboards are one of the most electronic devices that gives you the privilege to create varieties of circuits on it without soldering. 
When you are a beginner and just start to learn how to use a breadboard then it is important that you must know about this board first.

In this tutorial, you will learn -

1. What is a breadboard?
2. Breadboard connections,
3. How breadboard works?
4. Types of Breadboard.
5. How to use a breadboard?

Once you understand these things then you will able to build basic circuits on breadboards. 

What is a breadboard?

A breadboard is a simple device in which you can create electronic circuits without soldering. It is a rectangular shape plastic board with a bunch of tiny holes in it.

In these holes, you can easily insert electronic components (like LED, Capacitor, Resistor, Diode, different IC, etc) and test the circuit which you have made.

In this board, there is no permanent connection so there is an advantage to remove components if you make a mistake. So it is very useful for beginners who are new in electronics.

What is a breadboard?

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Quantum computer - How does it work?

Quantum computer 

Computers have become a very important part of our lives. Whatever the point of research, space exploration, and technological advancement, nothing is possible without a computer. In the past few centuries, we have reduced the size of the computer or even the power of computing has been greatly enhanced. If we use the example of today's smart phone's computing power, then it is much better than the military computer which was the equivalent of a room.

Despite all those things, our classical computer today is not perfect in many ways. If you talk about their general limitations, then it is their speeds. Because it takes a lot of time to solve complex mathematical equations. Among other problems, storage space issues and energy consumption plays a very important role. For this, we need a computer that is many times better than today's computer. 

Companies like Google, IBM (International Business Machines Corporation), and Intel are using the rules of quantum physics to create computers that we can be called futures computers. These computers are named Quantum Computers.

This kind of computer has been built or even used in small calculations. Now, these companies are trying to make this computer at a bigger level. If these computers start to be built at a larger level,  then they will replace the computers used today. In this article, we will know - 

1. How Quantum computer work? 
2. Problems with making Quantum computers 
3. What a Quantum computer can do? 

How Quantum computer work? 

Quantum computer is a computer that uses qubits or quantum bits for computing. If you are not familiar with qubits, then let's get to know qubits first.

Usually the computers we use such as desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones we call them binary computers. Because all of the functionality in them depends on 0 and 1. For any calculations within a binary computer, the processor uses transistors to perform.

Any transistor may be in the on state or off state, that means either yes or not. Where 1 represents the on and 0 represents off state. In any program or algorithm, what will calculate at the next step is determined by one or zero.

The thing is that the computer that uses 1 and 0 for computing is called bits. Now if we talk about quantum computers, it uses qubits instead of bits which is also called as quantum bits. These qubits also have an additional function that is not contained in the bits. Usually, the bits exist only in two states either 1 or 0. Now if I talk about qubits, it could be one, zero, or two states at a time. Which increases the computation speeds in the computer. 

Quantum computer - How does it work?

Until they are not observed they staying in the all possible state at the same time which is also called spinning state. Instead of measuring the states of this spinning state with 1 and 0, they are measured with three states called up, down, and both.

The functionality of these qubits is based on the superposition phenomenon in quantum physics. These qubits can influence each other using quantum entanglement even though they are not physically connected.

Quantum computer - How does it work?
Two qubits phi-minus entangled state

If you do not know about superposition Phenomenon, let's know about it briefly. In quantum physics, we see that this world is not as ordinary as it appears. Because how quantum particles behave when they are observed is completely different when they are not observed. A very good example of this is the double-slit experiment.

It shows us that when quantum particles are observed, they behave like particles, but when they are not observed, then they behave like a wave. The reason behind this phenomenon is that the original quantum particles are neither particle or wave.

Usually, they are present in their all possible state as a probability and we call it the wave function. Which means that they are at the same time both in the particle and in the wave. But when we observe them, the wave function collapse, as a result, one of these conditions is selected and we get that at the end.

Quantum computer simulates these behaviors of quantum particles in nature using qubits. As a result, its capacity is increased several times. How this happens let's understand with a simple example -

When we rotate a coin, the coin may show us head or tail in its stable state. The binary computers we have today are similar to this where we might have 0 or 1. So it takes a lot of time for today's computers to solve such cases where there is an equal probability of getting many answers. Because it checks all the possibilities in a perfect way.

But if we talk about quantum computers then it works differently. As long as our coin is rotating we do not know whether it will fall head or tail. That means when the coin is rotating it is in two conditions at the same time. Qubits are also in this similar state until they are observed. That means they can test many possibilities at the same time. From here it can be understood that when a binary computer starts solving a problem, the quantum computer's problem will be already solved.

If you look at the comparison, Google's quantum computer is millions of times faster than your normal binary computer. 

Problems with making Quantum computers 

The extraordinary power and speed of quantum computers are attracting many companies. But making them and working with them is not so easy. Because of the state of qubits changes during observation. And it produces very noise when using them. This means that when more qubits will be uses in it, the more error will be it is to show.

And the second challenge is that most quantum computers need to be kept at nearly zero temperature, which is even cooler than space. Even they need a lot of power to work well. That means a quantum computer is very costly to make it work. For this, It is not possible to use them extensively.

Only a handful of companies like Google, Intel and IBM are making quantum computers and trying to make them better. But it is certain that quantum computers will rule in the future. If we talk about Quantum supremacy, then Google has already announced a quantum chip called Bristlecone. In which, 72 qubits or quantum bits have been used, which has become the most widely used qubits chip in the field of quantum computing. 

Quantum computer - How does it work?
Bristlecone processor for quantum computers
Earlier this record was the name of the quantum processor of IBM that the company created two years ago in which 50 qubits were used. Google says they are still testing this new chip and are confident that their chip will be acquired by Quantum Supremacy within the next year. That means the quantum computer created by this chip will outperform the current computational speed supercomputer. 

What a quantum computer can do? 

Of course, quantum computers can do things that are impossible to do today's binary computers. Because quantum computers use qubits that can do a lot of work at the same time. They can solve many problems at the same time.

They do not have to look for solutions to a problem like the binary computer that will produce such a result if yes, and it will produce another result if not. A quantum computer will test two conditions at the same time and will give us the solution to that problem immediately.

Even quantum computers have the dangers of our security system for this skill. Because it wouldn't be a big deal to hack our current security system with such a computer. Keeping this danger in mind, researchers are looking to develop a technology that will be quantum hacking-proof.

In the future when we have a quantum-based cryptography system, then it will be much more secure. For which it would be impossible to hack. Researchers are much more interested in this quantum computer because it can be used to design complex chemical reactions. Which is very difficult to do with today's binary computer.

In July 2016, Google engineers first time simulate the hydrogen molecules for using this quantum device. If everything goes this way and they succeed in making quantum computing efficient, we will see many new molecules in the future. And we can use them starting from making medicines to other fields.

Whether it is space exploration, new exploration, or the development of artificial intelligence, quantum computers can provide a lot of support. If we are successful in using a quantum computer properly, it will increase our development speed many times. 

You may also like

1. String Theory Explained - What is the true nature of our reality? 

2. What is Quantum entanglement and How does it work? 

3. What are Black Holes and How do they form? 

4. What are Gravitational Waves and How LIGO detected these Waves? 

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