History of Artificial Intelligence - How AI evolved?

History of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not a new word and not new technology for researchers. This technology is much older than you would imagine. The History of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in ancient times, which was started with the myths of artificial creatures.

The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who tried to describe the human thought process as a mechanical manipulation of symbols. This article looks at how Artificial Intelligence has evolved over time.

History of Artificial Intelligence

The year 1943:

The first work which is now recognized as AI was done by Warren McCulloch and Walter pits in 1943.

In the 1943 paper, they proposed a model of artificial neurons where they tried to demonstrate that a Turing machine program could be implemented on a limited network of formal neurons.

The year 1949:

Donald Hebb demonstrated an updating rule for modifying the connection strength between neurons. His rule is now commonly referred to as Hebb's Law.

The year 1950:

Alan Turing who was an English mathematician and pioneered Machine learning in 1950. Alan Turing publishes the "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" in which he proposed a test.

The test can check the machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to human intelligence, called a Turing test.

The year 1955:

Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon created the "first artificial intelligence program"Which was named Logic Theories.

This program had proved 38 of 52 Mathematics theorems, and find new and more elegant proofs for some theorems.

The year 1956:

The word "Artificial Intelligence" first adopted by American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference.

For the first time, AI coined as an academic field. At that time high-level computer languages such as FORTRAN, LISP, or COBOL were invented. And the enthusiasm for AI was very high at that time.

The year 1966:

The researchers emphasized developing algorithms that can solve mathematical problems.

The computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum created a Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication between Man and Machine in 1966, which was named ELIZA.

The year 1972:

The first intelligent humanoid robot was built in Japan which was named WABOT-1The duration between the years 1974 to 1980 was the first AI winter duration.

AI winter refers to the time period where computer scientists dealt with a severe shortage of funding from the government for AI researches.

During AI winters, an interest in publicity on artificial intelligence was decreased.

The year 1980:

After AI winter duration, AI came back with an Expert System. Expert systems were programmed that emulate the decision-making ability of a human expert.

In the Year 1980, the first national conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence was held at Stanford University.

The year 1987:

In the second AI duration between the years 1987 to 1993 again Investors and government stopped in funding for AI research due to high cost but not efficient results. The expert system such as XCON was very cost-effective.

The year 1997:

In the year 1997, IBM Deep Blue beats world chess champion, Gary Kasparov, and became the first computer to beat a world chess champion.

The year 2002:

For the first time, AI entered the home in the form of Roomba, a vacuum cleaner.

The year 2006:

AI came into the Business world until the year 2006. Companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Netflix also started using AI. Deep learning, big data, and artificial general intelligence.

The year 2011:

In the year 2011, IBM's Watson won jeopardy, a quiz show, where it had to solve complex questions as well as riddles. 

Watson had proved that it could understand natural language and can solve tricky questions quickly.

The year 2012:

Google has launched an Android app feature "Google now", which was able to provide information to the user as a prediction.

The year 2014:

In the year 2014, Chatbot "Eugene Goostman" won a competition in the infamous "Turing test."

The year 2018:

The "Project Debater" from IBM debated on complex topics with two master debaters and also performed extremely well.

Google has demonstrated an AI program "Duplex" which was a virtual assistant and which had taken hairdresser appointment on call, and a lady on the other side didn't notice that she was talking with the machine.

Now AI has developed to a remarkable level. The concept of Deep learning, big data, and data science are now trending like a boom.

Nowadays companies like Google, IBMFacebook, and Amazon are working with AI and creating amazing devices. The future of Artificial Intelligence is bright and will come with high intelligence.

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